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Research Links

The links provided here have been gathered over time and reflect my judgment that the information provided is relatively reliable. Please be aware, however, that a website is only as good as its most recent author. Unlike peer reviewed and published sources of historical information, the information on these sites has not necessarily been checked or vetted by more than one expert. Some of it has been collected by amateurs, who often make grave mistakes despite their best intentions. Use this information as a starting point for your research, but double-check all important facts using published, peer-reviewed, scholarly sources. (Even the sites maintained by academic historians cannot be considered scholarly articles in the strict sense of the term. Please refer to my clarification here.) Do not assume that I or any other history instructor will accept these links as acceptable citations for high school or university-level research papers. If you are in any doubt about how to use websites for your research, please refer to the information and links that I provide under "Writing Advice" and the following useful guides: "How To Evaluate A Web Site" at; and A. Harnack & E. Kleppinger, E. Online!: A Reference Guide to Using Internet Sources (New York,1998) at

NOTE to those who want to help build my collection of links:

I have collected these somewhat randomly. I am always happy to receive e-mails informing me of broken links and/or useful additions to my list. It can sometimes take quite a bit of time before I get around to acting on your information, but I store these suggestions and update the website at least yearly.